For me “Color bleeding” refers to that feeling of panic I get when I look at a newly washed clothing with color blotches. Like this one.
Color bleed means that the color/dye of one piece of clothing ( or area) has transferred to another clothing (area) – totally unintentionally and unpleasantly – usually in the wash.
The experts will call color bleeding “Dye transfer”. I will call it Disaster.
Dye Transfer is the technical name given to the color bleeding in which the bright /strong colored dye moves and settles on lighter colored areas. It is not only the fabric that bleeds – Sometimes stitching threads may bleed, high-contrast fabric trims can also bleed into your garment.
Nowadays textile dyeing is more advanced than it was a few years ago and color bleeding is not the most common of laundry woes a homemaker has to suffer. But even then, it happens. And mostly it is the end of that garment’s usefulness. Dye transfer is mostly irreversible.
Prevention is the way out of the mess you have in your hands.
How to prevent bleeding of colors in clothes
Buy quality clothing made of color fast fabric
Type of dye used, chemicals used to dye, heat etc will determine if a fabric will bleed or not. A high quality garment with “Colorfast” mark on the clothing care label is a guarantee that it will not bleed.
Color fast labeling on the care label of your clothing means that the dye has been tested and will resist fading or bleeding . For eg. Navy blue jeans which is color fast will not bleed in the wash. Denim usually bleed some in the first wash.
Even if you have color fast clothing, some caution is preferred as there is rarely any guaranteed 100% color fast dyed garment
Determine which clothing will bleed
If you know that the yarn that makes the fabric has been dyed first (before it is made into the fabric) – you can be assured that it is a good deal ahead in the quality of colorfastness. If the fabric is dyed after it is made there is a higher chance of bleeding. A digital inkjet printed design is mostly dye fast.
Thread dye bleeding is common in clothes with machine embroidery designs. This is especially common with rayon thread embroidery.
Polyester fabrics are dyed with disperse dyes that chemically bond with fiber and hence they have excellent colorfastness. Pigment dyed fabrics have a greater chance of bleeding.
Silk fabrics with bright colors almost always bleed.Other Natural fabrics like cotton and linen, all show a tendency to bleed.
Some fabrics may not bleed but you cannot be sure about that unless you tested it. You can rub a corner of the fabric with a white cloth. If the color transfers to it you will know that you have to be extra careful.
One way to know (not fully reliable) if a bright colored garment may bleed is to see if it is marked “dry clean only”.
If you are absolutely terrified of bleeding and the garment do not say colorfast, do not buy clothes with contrast bright colors/fabric prints with light and dark colors.
Sort clothes before washing
Sort and wash separately new items with similar colors, at least for the first few times they’re washed. Separate light and dark colored clothes.
I would like a pink bra but not this patchy pink, in place of the milky white one I put into to wash. The result of washing white and pink together.
But the advantage of white clothes which have suffered dye transfer is that you can bleach it to white again. Check out the posts on washing white clothes so they remain white and stain removal from white clothes and the correct use of bleach.
If in doubt, give for dry cleaning, that is my policy. Dry cleaning is recommended for combination colors that have a tendency to bleed.
If you want to wash the clothes at home, remember that most bright colour clothes will bleed a little. It may be the loose dye in the fabric. This will stop in the subsequent washes. Use a mild detergent when washing the fabric.
Use gentle cleaning techniques and detergents. Hand washing in cold water with a gentle detergent and a flat drying on a stand is preferred for bright colored clothes that are susceptible to bleeding
On bright clothes which may bleed you should use only mild detergents. Do not test the dye with harsh detergents or bleach
Do not expose clothing to high Temperature i.e Do not use hot water to wash colored clothes which may bleed.
If you are sewing, use the fixatives in the pre-washing of fabrics, even before cutting them. If you have a garment, use these fixatives in the first wash.
There are commercially available color fixatives like Retayne and Synthropol – these can be added to the rinse water to prevent bleeding of clothes. It is used for natural fabrics like cotton, linen and also for rayon.
Take the fresh fabric and then soak in the color fixative dissolved water – hot water is usually used. (Follow the instructions in the package of the fixative) Work the fixative in the fabric for about 2 minutes.
There will be clear instructions on how to use it. You will have to use wooden spoons to stir the fabric and need a big pot to keep the fabric. Afterwards the fabric is rinsed in clear water.
A home made fixative that many people try is solution of common salt. Many vouch that keeping the garment soaked in salt solution fixes the dyes.
Another recommended home remedy is to soak the garment in cold water with a drop or two of citric acid or acetic acid for 1 to 2 min before washing in lukewarm or cold water.
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