At what point do you think about sewing machine needles and about changing them from what you got from the showroom ? Is it when you start to have
- Skipped stitches
- Uneven seams
- Damaged fabrics due to snagged threads
- Needle plate damage
- Dropped stitches
All these can be results of either using the wrong, unsuitable needle or using worn out or damaged needle. Sewing needle happens to be the least expensive part of your sewing machine. But it’s worth is far far more. Think of what all it could do if you wait till it gets worn bend or damaged.
There are many types of sewing machine needles available. I had a Singer sewing machine earlier which they said that would take only special needles from the company itself. First thing you need to tell the sales person when going to buy your sewing machine needle is the make and model of your machine.
The sewing machine manual you got when you purchased the machine also can guide you in which needle to choose. Then you have to take into consideration the fabric you are going to sew on and also the thread being used. Some machines will have a label on its body indicating the type of needle it takes.
Sewing Machine Needle sizes
Machine needle size numbers indicate the needle’s width. Basically, the thicker the needle, the bigger the number. As a general rule, the lighter weight fabrics use smaller needles and heavyweight fabrics use larger needles.
In selecting the sewing machine needle You need to know the appropriate number for the fabric you are sewing.Finer the fabric lower the number of the needle and finer the fabric to sew it on. The most common sizes used among the universal needles are 12 and 14. This is the American number system. For the most common needles European metric needle sizes number needles from 60 to 120
Sewing Machine Needle sizes for different Fabric types
Type of Fabric Eg. Needle Size Delicate / Very light weight china silk, fine lace, organza 8 or 9 Light weight Taffetta, Lining fabric, thin velvet, synthetic sheers 9, 10 or 11 Medium weight cotton nylon, crepe, knits, flannel, spandex, linen, poplin, wool,muslin 12 or 14 Heavy weight fleece denim leather vinyl upholstery fabric 14 or 16 Very heavy weight Heavy Canvas ; Thick leather 16 or 18
One peeve I have about these needles is that it is difficult to read the writing on them. Unless you store them in their covers it is mighty impossible to read the numbers unless you have a magnifying glass or a 20 year old vision.
- What are the different types of sewing machine needles
- General purpose needles ( Universal needles)
- Stretch needles
- Sharp needles / Microtex needles
- Denim needles / Jeans needles
- Leather Needles
- Twin needles
- Top stitching needles
- Machine Embroidery needles
- Metallic needles
- How to change the sewing machine needle
What are the different types of sewing machine needles
Do not feel overwhelmed, reading about all these varieties of sewing machine needles available. You can use a 11 sharp for embroidery and 12 universal for general sewing, like I do. But it is good to know you have choices.
General purpose needles ( Universal needles)
These are as the name says, needles you can use with most materials like wovens and knits. These are available in many sizes.It is classified according to the weight of the fabric.Universal needle is similar to a sharp needle, but has a slightly rounded tip.
Ball Point needles
The ball point needles are of two types – Jersey needle and Stretch needle ; Stretch needle is designed for extra stretchy fabrics and Jersey needles are meant for medium stretch fabrics.
Ball point needles are specifically designed to stitch knit and stretch fabrics like Lycra. I would also use this on other synthetic materials like polycotton, polyester etc.
These needles have a blunt tip which slides between the threads of your fabric instead of piercing them. So to prevent damage to the soft knit( snagging threads and holes) you had better change the needle when sewing that t-shirt to a ball point needle.Stretch needles also have a coating on them which make stitching smooth
This has a rounded tip and a small hump . The needle prevents skipped stitches. It is great to use with elastic, lycra, silk jersey , spandex and slinky knit fabrics.
Sharp needles / Microtex needles
This is specifically meant for woven fabrics like the cotton and is excellent for topstitching. You can use these needles for even very heavy fabrics like leather canvas etc.This is also right for delicate fabrics like silks and for heirloom sewing. This needle will give you perfect straight stitches.
Do not try using the sharp needles for knits or use the ball point needles for woven cloths. Stick to universal needles. It is a safe bet. You can sew both wovens and knits reasonably well with them. Just remember to change often.For embroidering on knits Sharp needles are ok.
Denim needles / Jeans needles
These are sharp and thick needles with a thick shaft meant to sew denim and other heavy materials like canvas, twill. This is also a great needle to use if you have to stitch several layers of fabric together. You can also use universal needle of size 16- 18 as an alternative . A special polyester thread meant for jeans is to be used with the needle for sewing on jeans.
This thin needle has a very sharp point and is ideal to sew many layers of fabric together.
These are needles with a wedge shape which will easily penetrate leather and suede. I have not used this needle, just read about them. Sounds like something to look out for. This needle should not be used to sew synthetic leather or suede
This is a special kind of needle with two shafts fixed on a bar and a single shank.
This needle make two rows of stitching lines parallel to each other. You need two spools of thread fixed on spool pins for this needle to work.
You can use the twin needles for heirloom sewing, pintucking, hemming and top stitching. For me this is the best way of top stitching ; no need to keep an eye on stitching lines being parallel and straight, and two lines of stitching in one go- perfect. This needle does work hard.
Triple needles are also available though I have not seen it anywhere.
In the package for twin needles there will be a number given – this is the distance between the two shafts of the needle, indicating the difference between stitches.
Top stitching needles
These are best to use with heavy top stitching thread. An 18 number Universal needle also will work the same.
Machine Embroidery needles
These are used for machine embroidery with embroidery thread; No more breakage when sewing the dense filling stitches with colourful rayon or polyester thread.The eye of this needle is bigger to accommodate thicker embroidery thread. They work very well with all types of fabrics.
Nowadays you get Titanium needles to do machine embroidery. They stand long and continuous use with dense stitches done continuously.
Meant to be used with the extra delicate metallic threads. If you have worked with metallic thread and they break every other second making you thread again and again you will feel the need for these needles.
These are needle with grooves through which thread will get inside. This needle can be used with most wovens as well as some knits and also artificial leather or suede.
How often should I change the needle ?
Blunt needles are the bane of beautiful fabric especially delicate ones. A blunt needle will catch on the fabric snagging it every time it pierces it.
Remember that the blunt needle can mark your beautiful smooth fabric. Why risk your expensive fabric. For want of a nail —-
Some seamstresses change the needle before starting a new project. At least change the sewing machine needle after every 8-10 hours of use, even though you feel that the needle is going fine. Serger needles need to be changed after 15 hours of use.
Even if you do not want to change the needle as frequently, change them as soon as you see thread breaking or skipped stitches. That is a good indication to look out for .
You may also need to change the needle more often for thick, dense fabrics, as they wear the needle more.
Tip : If you find that the needle is leaving large marks on the fabric you may need to change the needle and use a smaller needle.
How to change the sewing machine needle
Read your sewing machine manual for proper instructions on how to insert the needle. The general way that I do is as follows
Turn the hand wheel towards you. This will make the needle go high up.
Now loosen the needle bar screw a little ( not too much so that it comes out, you just need it loose for the needle to be inserted)
Insert the new needle into the space with flat side away from you. Shank is that top portion of the needle that you have to insert into the machine. The curvy side of the needle should be facing you. Push it as high as you can.
Tighten the screw. You can use a screw driver which you get with the sewing machine.
An important tip on using sewing machine needles
Do not sew over pins . Remove pins as you sew. Pins can break needles or blunt them.