Laundry Bleaches – why do we use them ?
This is why. I haven’t even worn this shirt and it has a stain already. This is what happens with light colored clothes – stains just finds them. Unless I give it to the drycleaners I will have to deal with it myself – with bleach, of course.
A laundry bleach converts soils and stains in your fabric into more soluble, colorless, or dispersible particles. This is then removed by detergent and washed away with water.
There are two types of bleaches – the liquid household bleach or chlorine bleach and oxygen bleach. Both works to remove stains and soils through oxidization.
Household chlorine bleach – liquid
This is the most commonly used bleach. It contains the chemical sodium hypochlorite.
There are many reasons why you may be using this bleach. I use it on my white clothes to remove stains and make them white again.
Some use it on diapers for obvious reasons – it disinfects the soiled clothes and removes stains and make them smell better. Bleach even removes the hated horrible mildew smell from clothes
The advantages of using chlorine bleach are equally weighed down by the disadvantages of it – the ecological impact of it on the environment, the adverse effects of its fumes on our health, the disintegration of fabric fibers to name them.
Oxygen bleachbleach is based on hydrogen peroxide and is available in a powder form.
Oxygen bleach works the same way as chlorine bleach. The difference is that it is not as damaging to the fibers of your fabric as chlorine bleach. And it does not fade the colors of the cloth. Which is why you will find the label “color safe” on this bleach. It brightens clothes. You can safely use it in your favorite clothes again and again without much damage.
Some do’s and don’ts for using bleach on your clothes
1. Do use chlorine bleach on natural fibers like cotton, linen and on synthetic and permanent press fabrics rayon, acetate, polyester.
2. Do a pretest on the fabric to see if the fabric is suitable for bleaching – mix the bleach solution and place one drop in an inconspicuous place. Wait for 1 minute. If there is a problem you will know.
3. Do use rubber gloves on hands to protect your hands – bleach is damaging to your skin. You skin will wrinkle up in no time with exposure to even diluted bleach.
4. Do use mask on your nose when using bleach if you have allergies. Prolonged inhalation can cause damage. I would suggest to use a respirator.
5. Do check the laundry care label of the clothing before bleaching -if the following sign which says ‘no bleach’ is there on the care label – never bleach
6. Do follow the bleaching instructions on the packet of your bleach
7. Do mix the bleach to the water thoroughly and then add clothes – never undiluted bleach.
8. Do remove all traces of bleach from clothes. Rinse many times in clean water and wash as usual with detergent. You can use a solution of Hydrogen Peroxide as a neutralizing agent to stop the effect of chlorine bleach.
9. Do be careful that you do not get even a drop of the bleach solution on the clothes you are wearing. The bleach droplets can cause bleach spots on bright clothes, which look ghastly. Rinse the fabric which got bleach in a large quantity of water very thoroughly
10. Do remove any metallic buttons and such embellishments from the cloth before bleaching.
Do not’s in using bleach on fabric
11. Do not use bleach on coloured fabric especially if they are not colourfast. The bleach damages the colours of the coloured clothes irreparably, as it reacts chemically with most pigments and dyes used to color garments.
12. Do not use chlorine bleach on protein fibers like wool and silk and luxury woolen clothes like cashmere, on spandex or on leather, vinyl, pleather and plastic or fiberglass. Never use on NYLON. Yellowing, severe weakening of fiber, stiffening etc are consequences.
13. Do not keep fabric in hot bleach solution for more than 5 minutes and in cold beach solution no more than 10 minutes.
14. Do not use bleach regularly and frequently on the same clothes, even the white ones ; white clothes can yellow with over use.
15. Do not (ever) mix chlorine bleach with any other cleaning products. And not with Vinegar – the chlorine gas it produces is dangerous.
16. Do not use metal containers to mix bleach or use it. Use plastic or glass.
17. Do not use bleach if the water has high iron traces or acidic water. Chlorine doesnot work in acidic water. Chlorine solution is highly alkaline and has a ph value above 9.
How much chlorine bleach should you use
For spot cleaning
Instead of using bleach on the whole garment, you can spot clean the stain.You can mix equal parts of liquid chlorine bleach and water. Use an eye dropper to drop the mix on the stain. Rub if necessary with a tooth brush. Wash as usual.
Mix one tablespoon household liquid bleach to one cup of cold water. If this is not enough for soaking your garment increase proportionately. Soak as usual for some time. Wash as usual. Do not wash this clothing along with coloured fabrics
How to use oxygen bleach.
You can mix oxygen bleach in water or sprinkle the product directly on the stain and dip the fabric in hot water. The clothes may have to be soaked in this bleach for some time as per the instructions on the package, if the stain is tough. Do a pretest in case you suspect that the colour of the fabric may run.
Nowadays some detergents come premixed with oxygen bleach.
How to make your own bleach for clothes
You can make your own bleach solution at home. Take a solution of washing soda and boiling water.
Method 1 Mix chloride of lime with cold water. Let this mixture stand till it settles down.Now separate this clear liquid to another mug. Add it to the washing
Allow the precipitate to settle and then strain off the clean liquid.
Store in coloured bottles.
Method 2 Buy Hydrogen Peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide (3%) is mostly available at medicine stores as an antiseptic.
Take 1.5 tbsp hydrogen peroxide and mix with 1 cup of water. Add 2 drops of ammonia to this. Soak the garment in this solution. Hydrogen Peroxide as it is may damage fabric so use with caution and plenty of dilution.
Method 3 Sodium hypochlorite can be used when diluted in hot water as a bleaching solution.
Method 4 You can also dissolve 1/2 tbsp dishwash liquid soap in 4 cups of warm water. Add 2 drops of ammonia in this. Soak the garment in this for some time
You can use Ammonia as such in the wash along with detergent. It does not fade the color of clothes when diluted and removes stains to an extend. (Do not mix ammonia with chlorine bleach – never). But if you do not like strong smells stay away from Ammonia.
Method 5 You can also try using Vinegar in the wash for its bleaching properties. The problem is that Vinegar undiluted can be as dangerous for fabric fibers as bleach, so use diluted. Never use vinegar with bleach.
Method 6 Lemon juice does have some bleaching capacity. Of course not a replacement for bleach in its strength and effectiveness.
Method 7 Mix borax and caustic soda with hydrogen peroxide and warm water. To use, dilute this solution in lots of water. Add some ammonia for more effectiveness.
Method 8 Dissolve 4 tsp of washing soda in 500 ml of boiling water. Dip the fabric in this solution when hot for about 10 minutes. Rinse thoroughly.
Method 9 Then there is the most natural of all bleaches – Sunlight. For small stains and discolouration, It is the best method of bleaching for cotton and linen.
These are good bleach alternatives, which though should be tested before use on the actual garment.
Neutralizing effects of bleach
Bleach can damage fabric fibers, most times beyond repair. Distressing fabric requires you to use undiluted bleach for its beautiful discolouring effects but it is killing for your poor cloth. You can try a bleach neutralizer to reduce the negative impact. Check out this post on sciencing.com on bleach neutralizers.
Ref : Some facts on chlorine