Stretchy materials refer to fabrics which can stretch without breaking the fibers and return to its original length. This stretch of the fibers provides clothes/accessories made with them the much-needed ease, drape, comfort and fitting.
There are two types of stretch materials according to the way they stretch.
2 way stretch materials – These fabrics stretch in one direction either lengthwise or crosswise.
4 way stretch materials – These fabrics stretch in two directions – crosswise as well as lengthwise ie They can be stretched sideways as well as along the selvedges
ref : wikipedia
Below are the materials I have seen which have some or lots of stretch. The elasticity of these fabrics is a result of the yarns of which they are made of. The most popular yarn is spandex , then there is a rubber core yarn, and there are specially made stretchy yarns made of polyester, nylon and natural fibers.
To ascertain the stretch you will have to go by the percentage of spandex/ elastane/stretchy yarn in the fabric or try it yourself to see whether the stretch of the fabric suits your purpose. For example some fabrics with a 4 way stretch will stretch more in one direction than the other
A good method is to take a 4 inch square piece of the fabric and stretch it; Keep it against a tape measure and see how it stretches out. You can compare the stretch against the percentage given.
The method to determine the stretchiness of a fabric
This is important to do before you make things with the fabric because the different fabric stretches differently.
Fold the fabric on the crosswise grain, some distance from the cut edge
Mark a 4-inch section on this fold
Keep a long ruler along the folded edge.
Keep one edge of the ruler at the start of the marking you have made.
Gently but firmly stretch this fabric.
see how much it stretches –
If it stretches less than 4 1/2 inches it is a stable not so stretchable fabric
If it stretched about 5 1/4 inches it has a moderate stretch
If it stretches more than 6 inches it is a true blue stretchable fabric
Real stretchy fabrics.
Most of the knit fabrics have some stretch. Usually, it is a 2 way stretch. The stretch in the knit fabric makes it one of the most suitable fabric for sewing clothes.
Jersey is a light to medium weight knit fabric with good stretch used to make sports and casual wear. Cotton jersey is the lightweight drapey, smooth surfaced knit fabric used to make t-shirts. Cotton fibers in this cloth make this very comfortable to wear.
Woollen Jersey fabric may be made by machine or hand knitted with wool yarns.The disadvantage of this fabric is that it unravels where it is cut.
Other knit fabrics for dressmaking with stretch are 3×3 Rib Knit, Bamboo Jersey, Doubleknit Rayon Blend, Interlock twist jersey
Double knit, Silk Mesh Knits, Silk Jersey
Check out the post on different types of knit fabrics for more details on this fabric.
This synthetic fabric has revolutionized the textile industry with its ability to stretch to almost 300-400 percentage on its own. The stretchiness of spandex depends on its elastane content. 1-5% is common in comfort wear whereas sports wear usually has elastane content of about 12-15%.
Are Spandex and Lycra the same?. No. Spandex is a generic name for super stretchy fabrics with elastic content – the base could be cotton, nylon or wool. Lycra is a spandex fabric which is trademarked by Dupont Company. Learn more about spandex here
3. Spandex blends
When blended with other fibers spandex can lend about 2-20 % of its elasticity to the new fibers.
Cotton – spandex blend – Very smooth fabric with a 4 way stretch . The percentage of spandex usually is 3- 5% . It is used to make t-shirts, skirts, dresses
When synthetic fibers are combined with elastane(lycra) and made into fabric with a knitted construction the fabric is termed as Slinky Knits. They may be further classified according to their main fiber.
Polyester – spandex Blend – This is very lightweight stretchy material with stretch. This is perfect for sewing leggings. It is also popularly bought for making leather-look apparel and accessories. You can also make dancewear and costumes with this material.
Stretch satin -This is a polyester -spandex blend in a satin finish; it can look very lustrous.
Stretch velvet – This fabric with a napped surface can have about 15% stretch ; You can make beautiful garments with this. The lustrous look makes it a favourite to make costumes / dancewear
Polyester spandex fabric with foam backing – this is mostly used for home furnishings
Nylon Spandex Fabric – This stretchy material is usually used to make swimwear , lingerie ( sports bras) active wear – those super stretchy cycle shorts worn by cycling champions are made in this fabric. It has a very nice 4 way stretch (15% spandex mostly). Tricot ( Italian Tricot etc) is a Nylon Spandex which has 25-50% stretch.
Rayon knit /Spandex – this has a good stretch and it is a very silk like smooth. This combination make it ideal for making very fitting and comfortable garments . Bamboo rayon is specially smooth.
Acetate/Spandex ; Modal/Spandex ; Tencel/Spandex ; Linen/ Spandex are other blends which are available
This is a lightweight denim with a stretch for comfort and ease. It is a mix of cotton, polyester and spandex. You can use this denim to sew fitting jeans, skirts and dresses.
Cotton poplin stretch
This stretchy fabric is a blend of Poplin, cotton and spandex – this fabric usually has a slight (10 % ) stretch and is very comfortable . This is ideal for making shirts
Faux Leather/ Vinyl Fabric with stretch
This is ideal for making accessories like belts and also for sewing home furnishing
This is the best of lace fabrics as it has a stretch/ ease added to the beauty of lace. It is a combination of synthetic and elastic threads. You see lingerie being made in this fabric mostly. You can also use this fabric for making garments like evening wear, fitting blouses, dresses, skirts. You can also sew leggings with this material
This net fabric has a large proportion of elastane fibers in it and has a good 4 way stretch- best for making underwear.
Latex is made from the sap of the rubber tree. Rubber can be used to make clothes but mind you, not everyday clothes. It is very difficult to sew and very difficult to wear – no breathing and at times irritating to skin. But the stretch of rubber (more than even spandex) and water resistance makes it desirable for certain items. One precautionary note on fabrics made with rubber core yarns – do not dry clean. Dry cleaning fluid can damage the fabric.
5. Neoprene Rubber
Neoprene rubber is a synthetic polymer resembling rubber. Wet suits used in scuba diving is usually made of Neoprene rubber. Neoprene rubber is available in many thicknesses and is increasingly used to make fashion garments and accessories as well
And finally woven fabric also stretch – when it is cut on the bias. So if you want the advantages of a woven fabric but is about to discard it because of not being stretchy , cut the fabric on the bias grain ie along a line drawn 45 degrees to the lengthwise and crosswise grain of the fabric
Check out the related post on other different types of fabrics.