Textiles refer to materials that are made from fibers. Fibers are hair like materials which are natural or manufactured or a combination. The fibers are spun into yarn and then made into fabric by different methods like weaving, knitting, felting. It forms the building block of a garment.
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Humans have been making textiles for a long long time and have since discovered different methods of making them, decorating them and making things with them.
Different types of fibers originated in different parts of the world – cotton in India, Africa; silk in China , wool in Mediterranean and flax for linen in Europe and Egypt ; later these textiles reached all parts of the world and was adopted by all cultures and geographical regions.
Different fibers that form textiles
The fibers that form textiles are of 2 types
- Natural fibers
They are harvested from plants or by shearing animal fur. The most common ones you must know are wool, silk (from animals) cotton,jute, flax ( from plants)
Hair bearing animals like silkworms and sheep are shorn of their fur to produce these fibers( wool, silk) ;Fibers are also extracted from roots, leaves etc of plants like cotton, flax etc. Minerals like asbestos are also used to make fibers
- Manufactured fibers ( Man made fibers)
Major players of the textile industry invest in developing fibers which are economical as well as carry many qualities which are highly desired. These versatile fibers are much in demand and make up almost half of the fiber produced in the world today.
Manufactured fibers consists of the following three types
1 Regenerated cellulose fibers which are made from a viscous solution of cellulose which is purified wood pulp
2 Synthetic fibers which are basically chemical raw materials
3 Blended fibers, man made fibers made by blending other man made fibers or with natural fibers. They are mostly a cross between natural and manmade fibers.
How are textiles made ?
After the fibers are produced, they are made into yarn. Different types of fibers under go different types of spinning processes to make them into yarns. The finished yarn is made into fabric by different methods like weaving & knitting. Other methods like crocheting, felting, laminating, knotting etc are also used.
Production of textiles are woven into the history of their respective regions. Each of the textile tells a specific original story of the people who made and used them down the centuries.Some of these textiles are no longer in use or they have lost their commercial importance due to a number of reasons.
Man has since invented many processes and technologies to produce beautiful textiles with spectacular designs and patterns in the most cost effective and streamlined ways.
Mass production of textiles with minimum dependence on manual labour has cut down the production cost of textiles and has made most of the textiles affordable for ordinary people like you and me
Textile making processes
- Knitting -This is a process in which loops of fibers are interlocked to form the fabric
- Felting – This is a process which makes use of heat, pressure and moisture and adhesives to interlock fibers to produce the fabric
- Weaving – This is a process in which warp fibers( threads that is lying along the length of the fabric) and weft fibers (threads that are lying along the width of the fabric) are interlaced to form the fabric
According to the method by which the textiles are made they can be classified as follows
Plain weave textiles eg : Most fabrics Muslin, broadcloth, Canvas ( In this type of woven textiles the weft yarn is alternately passed over one warp yarn and under the next yarn perpendicular to each other)
Satin weave textiles Eg: Satin . (Woven Textiles with a smooth finish on one side and a matt finish on the other side due to the weaving that makes either weft or warp thread dominating the weaving structure.)
Twill weave textiles Eg. Denim (Woven Textiles made in a special weaving pattern that produces a diagonal weave / ridges throughout the fabric)
Basket weave, rib weave, dobby weave, jacquard weave , herringbone weave etc are other types of classifications.
Tricot Knits ( A warp knit textile which is very soft and stretchy; Used to make lingerie.)
Raschel Knits ( Another warp knit fabric with a complex structure; it almost looks like lace or crochet)
Jersey Knits ( The most basic weft knit textile which is more stretcy than warp knits; sweaters, lingerie are all made in this knit)
Double Knits ( A weft knit textile made with 2 different yarn feeds interlocking), Interlock knits , Purl Knits, Rib Knits, Float Jacquard knits ( with a pattern on the face of the fabric) Full Jacquard knits ( with pattern on both sides) are all weft knit textiles
Fabric category Fabric names
Very lightweight woven fabrics Batiste, chiffon, net, Voile, Organza, Georgette, transparent fabrics.
Lightweight Woven fabrics Challis, chambray, charmeuse, crepe, dotted swiss, handkerchief linen, silk blouse fabrics, satin, eyelet, lace, Velvet, Taffeta, lightweight wools and polyesters
Light to Medium Weight Woven fabrics Metallic, Sequined fabrics, elasticized fabrics, gingham, percale seersucker.
Medium Weight Woven fabrics Broadcloth, brocade, linen, pique, shantung, chintz, velveteen, polyester blends acrylics, Woolens, fleece, gabardine, outerwear fabrics.
Medium to Heavy Weight Woven fabrics Denim, drapery fabric, twill-weave, corduroy, terry, velour, fake fur, double-faced fabrics, quilted fabrics.
Heavy Weight Fabrics Canvas, duck, awning fabrics. sailcloth, upholstery
Lightweight Knits Double knit, interlocks, jersey, mesh, panne velvet, rib knits.
Light to Medium Weight Knits Sweater, sweatshirt, two-way stretch, velour.
Medium Weight Knits double knits fleece
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