Ikat Pattern, Weave and Dyeing on fabric

ikat pattern on ikat fabric.

The word ‘Ikat’ is like the word ‘run’ in English dictionary. 

‘Run’ means’ race’, ‘hasten’ or ‘elope.’ It is also used when there is color bleeding; also when someone is participating in an election; then, on socks, run means a tear. There are many more meanings to the word ‘run’. Similarly, though maybe not so much, everyone uses the word ‘ikat’ in so many ways that you can get easily confused.

They could be talking about Ikat as a Fabric, or as a pattern, or as a resist dyeing process or as a weave.

ikat

 

What is Ikat Pattern?

Ikat is a type of textile pattern made with the use of dyed threads that are woven into the fabric to create a characteristic design of wavy lines. The Ikat technique is a traditional and popular method of creating designs on the fabric by resist-dyeing the threads before the fabric is woven.

The word “ikat” comes from the Indonesian word (Malay-Indonesian word ‘mengikat’) meaning “tie,” and it refers to the way the threads are dyed and woven together. Ikat fabric is often brightly colored.

Ikat fabric has always been in demand for making clothing, accessories and upholstery. It is very popular all over the world. The patterns are very distinctive and much loved.

Ikat is also called Ikkat. 

How is Ikat pattern made?

Ikat pattern making is a complex, skill intensive traditional textile work.

In Ikat, the yarns are arranged in bundles and they are then marked with the design, tied with dye resistant tape and then dyed to create particular designs into the yarn.These threads are then woven into Ikat fabric to make the beautiful Ikat patterns. 

Where did the Ikat pattern originate?

Ikat pattern is native to countries in Asia. Many countries like India, Indonesia, China  Japan, Cambodia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand and Yemen claim Ikat as their own. As said the word Ikat is said to have been derived from the Indonesian term “mengikat” which means ‘to tie or bind’

ikat fabric and pattern in blue

Ikat as a Pattern

As a pattern, the scope of Ikat is limitless. Some characteristic features are present in all Ikat patterns. Traditional motifs of ikat are fish, parrot, flowers, leaves etc. Colours of Indian Ikkat fabric are bright and cheerful like yellow, white, blue etc.

The designs almost always have a blurred / fuzzy outline. (unless it is a double ikat).

This fuzzy look is created in the process of aligning the dyed yarns (due to the shifting of the warp/weft yarns) and it is a distinctive feature of almost all Ikat prints. It may also be due to the color seepage at the edges of the bindings at the resist dyeing stage.

Ikat as a resist dyeing method

The yarns to be used to make the Ikat fabric are dyed with a bound, resist dyeing process that will eventually create very intricate patterns on the fabric.

The yarns (warp yarn alone, weft yarns alone or weft and warp both) are wrapped and bound in portions with a poly plastic Ikat tape or special cotton yarn etc ( which resists all dyes) in a deliberate and calculated fashion and then the yarns are dyed. Sometimes the colors are applied directly and or, the yarn is immersed in a dye bath.

When the dyeing is finished and the yarn is unwrapped, the bound areas remain colorless or the color of the original yarn. Different colors are added with additional binding – and this results in the more complicated designs.

diamond shaped ikat fabric pattern

Ikat as a weave

In Ikat weaving, the dyed yarn is woven in a particular way so that beautiful patterns are created on the fabric. The yarn has to be kept in a particular position on the loom to make the special designs  – the process is highly skilled and very time-consuming.

You need highly skilled artisans for this work. The weaving of Ikat fabric is very complex and needs a lot of precision in weaving as the warp and weft yarn are resist dyed and they have to be interweaved to make a particular design. When Ikat is handwoven, the very complex designs in Ikat weaving can take up to months to finish.

Different types of Ikat weaves

There are mainly Four types of Ikat weaving – warp Ikat and weft Ikat, double Ikat and compound Ikat

Warp Ikat

In warp Ikat, the lengthwise thread (warp yarns) is dyed with the resist dyeing process, and these threads will be prominently visible in the fabric. The weft thread will be in one solid color.  

Weft Ikat

In weft Ikat, only weft yarn (crosswise yarn) will be visible prominently making the Ikat patterns. The vertical lines may look slightly blurred in warp ikat fabrics where as in weft ikats, the horizontal lines are blurred.

Warp Ikat vs Weft Ikat

Weft Ikat technique is a preferred method as it creates a longer length of cloth than the warp Ikat, but the time taken to create the fabric is longer and there may be small irregularities in the prints.

Silk and wool yarns are usually woven in this method. Silk weft ikat fabric from south east Asian countries like Indonesia and Bali are particularly distinctive and beautiful.

Ikat patterned sari of India.

Cotton and other plant fibers are usually woven with the warp Ikat technique, though weft Ikat is also used.

Compound Ikat

In compound Ikat, the warp and weft Ikat is combined in the same fabric in different places. 

Double Ikat

Double Ikat is a very complex process in which warp Ikat and weft Ikat are used simultaneously and they work together forming intricate designs. As a result finely outlined designs can be produced. In this technique, both the warp and weft yarns have prominence. 

An Indian Silk fabric called Patan Patola Ikat fabric is made using this technique. Pochampilly saris with beautiful geometric designs, made in South India is another fine example of double Ikat.

Patan Patola is a traditional Ikkat weaving native to Gujarat state in India. Patola saris are very famous and valued. It is a dying art because of the complexity of producing the designs and the hand labor needed to finish a yard of fabric.

Many skilled workers are needed for making the cloth – someone to dye the yarns in separate colors, someone to wind the bobbins, someone to weave the threads stretched across the rooms with mathematical precision- each taking many many days of concentrated effort.

The silk fabric that emerges is worth all that effort but the cost may seem prohibitive because of all the labor involved.

Ikat as a Fabric 

You will find that cotton and Silk (and blends of cotton and silk) are the commonly used fibers for Ikat fabric production.

Other than ‘warp ikat’ and ‘weft ikat’, you will hear many other names when referring to Ikat fabric. 

Ikat as a fabric is very popular as a home furnishing as well as dressmaking fabric. Ikat curtains in subtle colors are very beautiful.

It is used to make scarves, summer dresses,sarongs, and saris.

Ikat in different parts of the world

The Indian states Orissa , Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Gujarat are famous for different kinds of Ikat fabrics.

Sambalpuri Ikkat is a special Ikat sari fabric made in the state of Orissa.

❤Pochampilly ikat and Pasapalli ikat are other Ikat fabrics from India.

❤Kasuri is the name that Japanese calls their Ikat fabrics.

In India the state of Orissa is famous for beautiful ikat fabrics which are turned into sarees, dress and upholstery materials.

❤In Thailand you will be calling it as Mudmee fabric.

Ikat fabrics of Thailand are very famous and the weaving of ikat threads is a cottage industry there. People in villages resist dye the threads (weft threads) by tying different areas of the thread using plastic cords. This dyeing results in very complex ikat designs depicting every day life, scenary etc. The resultant fabric is used to make sarongs and other clothing.

Beware of fake Ikat

The real ikat involves a complicated dyeing and weaving process and results in beautiful, intricate designs. It is a technical and labour intensive textile work involving months of work – a saree length of ikat in India can take up to seven months from start to end.

The ikat prints can mimic the look with just surface printing of the patterns. Ikat printed fabrics are inexpensive when compared to the real one, but the prints could fade with time.

If you are duped into buying an Ikat fabric which is just cotton or synthetic fabric printed with the Ikat patterns at the same price as the woven one, then that is wrong. The prints are beautiful enough but the dyeing and weaving of the distinct patterns of ikat is a separate wonder and worth the price. Do you agree?

fabric with an ikat pattern as a print on the sirface

Further reading on Ikat:

Photos of Ancient Ikat Fabrics ; More on Mudee fabric here ; Kasuri on Wikipedia here.

Updated on November 3, 2022 by Sarina Tariq

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