Embroidery – definition
Embroidery is the art of stitching beautiful embroidery stitches on fabric surfaces with thread /embroidery floss and other materials. It is a very popular surface ornamental decoration for fabrics creating beautiful patterns on the surface of the fabric with decorative stitches or laid thread.
Embroidery involves depicting beautiful imagery on fabric and succeeds in bringing wonderful texture to the fabric.
Embroidery can be done by hand or by your sewing machine. Hand embroidery uses needle and thread to make beautiful stitches. Embroidery Sewing machines use a zig zag stitch to create different types of embroidery designs.
Learn some basic details about machine embroidery here.
There are specialized computerized sewing machines that can embroider up to 1200 stitches per minute with multiple coloured threads. There are embroidery softwares that can translate complex designs and embroider them with sewing machines within minutes. So even if you are into simple or if you are into intricate work there is scope in embroidery.
Other than thread beads, sequins stones etc are used to further embellish embroidery.
What is the purpose of embroidery?
The bright, vibrant and often colourful artform brings such joy to so many people around the world that this question is quite irrelevant. But skeptics may disagree but still relish sleeping on an elegantly embroidered pillowcase or get their shirts monogrammed. What is the purpose, indeed!
Embroidery has continued to delight humans from time immemorial. Small handkerchiefs to large bedspreads to elaborate wedding gowns have been embellished with designs of embroidery.
Most of the time embroidery is closely related to the culture of a place and in sync with the traditions there. While you may think of embroidery as a women’s pastime there are places where embroidery techniques are the prerogative of men.
The ancient art seems to be showing no sign of dying out. There are some prerequisites for any successful embroidery work.
The 5 main factors that influence embroidery work
1. Design of the embroidery
All Embroidery starts with a design.
Either as a freehand drawing of a design or transferring a copy of the design you want from a sheet of paper to the fabric by a variety of means ( learn more about the different methods used to transfer embroidery designs to fabric here).
You can plan the design on paper and then develop on it on the fabric or start the design from the fabric itself. Find some inspirations to make your own embroidery design here .
You can copy designs from easily available embroidery design works but developing your own design is wonderful. Imagine having a work of art that no one else has conceived and conceptualized other than you.
The most popular subjects for embroidery are from nature- plants and flowers, fruit, vegetables, sceneries of nature . Learn more details on designing embroidery- 10 sources of inspiration; how you can convert a favourite photo into an embroidery work here.
Simple geometrical forms like circles squares can also form easy-to-do designs. Border designs are also very popular. They can be designed on their own or along with other motifs.
You can draw inspiration from traditional embroidery patterns and adapt them to suit your style with simple changes and make them your own. This way, those long-forgotten work stays alive.
2. Materials and equipment used for embroidery
The basic materials used for embroidery are the fabric, a frame and thread to do the work. But with more tools, you can do more.
Embroidery hoop to hold the fabric, pencil and other marking tools different type of needles appropriate for the fabric and the embroidery concerned, cutting tools like scissors, rulers are all things you will need as you turn from a beginner to a seasoned embroider.
Specialized equipment can make your job easier. To do complicated work like applique you can do a better job with the applique scissors; ari work needle can easily do chain stitch embroidery work far better and faster than the ordinary needle; you can make small holes with a stiletto for broderie Anglaise work to make eyelets.
Different kinds of threads are used to do embroidery stitches like the common embroidery thread with 6 strands or Perle cotton thread, or metallic thread, or even wool thread. Ribbon embroidery work is a study on its own and requires ribbons in many colors. Each thread departs their own look and changes the result of the work.
Related posts : 40 Different types of embroidery tools; 13 Different types of embroidery thread; Different types of metallic thread; Different types of ribbon; Ribbon embroidery stitches; Bead embroidery stitches
2. Fabric selection
The type of fabric used, its surface texture, the prints on the fabric are all important aspects in the final look of the embroidery. For eg., A chequered fabric is used to do chicken scratch embroidery. That type of embroidery would not look as good on any other type of print.
Cross stitch is done on more loosely woven fabric. You need an even weave fabric for counted satin stitch and other counted stitches like that of pattern darning or blackwork. The printed fabric like gingham, striped fabrics or huckaback, are all popularly used in embroidery for their wonderful designs or weaves.
Canvas work is done on plastic canvas with open holes – the thread fully covers the canvas in vibrant patterns.
The shadow work is best when done on transparent sheer fabrics
For some embroidery, you need the same thickness for the weft and warp threads so these may not be successful when done on some fabrics like polycotton or satin with different types of weft and warp thread.
If you want embroidery on a garment that will be worn and washed at home it had better be a fabric with easy care instructions. Wearability and washability are important Wearability and washability are important. Learn more about the best fabric used for embroidery here.
Transparent fabrics or fabric with open weaves like net fabric call for a different treatment and embroidery technique than does fabric like linen. Looped, piled or flocked textured fabric all can be embroidered but they need special treatment and a careful analysis of what suits the fabric texture.
3. Color scheme
Color coordination is more important in embroidery than anywhere else. Contrasting colors, monotones, shades of the same color, an ombre effect – all are popular. But colors are mostly personal. What appeals to you maynot appeal to me. What is popular in one society may not be used in another. A girl may want pink flowers but a boy may see it as childish.
You should know that color value of a color changes when they are placed with other colors – so keep the fabric and the colors you are going to use with the embroidery together and decide on the color scheme you are going to choose for the embroidery project.
In my personal experience contrasting colors work best in embroidery – for eg a bright red flower amidst green leaves on a light colored fabric can look striking when compared to the same work done on a black fabric.
But then again, this depends on the effect you intend to create with the project. If you want a muted look, tone on tone embroidery can look very elegant ( this is the same color thread as that of the fabric used for embroidery). Another idea is to use three tones of a single color—light, medium and dark on fabric with one of the shades of the color.
The number of colors used can also be a personal choice but restricting the colors to three of four is more prudent for a unified look.
4. Embroidery techniques
It is an extensive (maybe even exhaustive) work to learn all the different types of embroidery techniques that have been developed all around the world- so many different types of embroidery stitches, so many distinctive motifs. There are very simple to complicated embroidery techniques – depending on the skill of the person doing the work, place of origin etc
Most times we combine embroider stitches and techniques – but you have to know the effect of doing this in advance. It should look complete in the end not disjointed. The techniques and stitches should enhance each other and build upon each other. You may need to make a sampler to see this – a sampler is a test piece with the same fabric in which you work different stitches to see how they look together
There are two basic types of embroidery – one is counted thread embroidery and the other is free embroidery. Counted thread embroidery stitches are made over a predetermined number of threads in the fabric in a pattern. pulled work, cut work, drawn work, canvas, laid work, blackwork are examples. The pattern has to be followed thoroughly for the work to look good. In free embroidery, you are free to fill the design as you wish.
5. Placement and purpose of the embroidered project
First you embroider a design on a piece of fabric and then decide to use it for something – is that what you do?. That is a wrong way to go about it.
You should do the embroidery after deciding on the purpose of the project and where the embroidery unit will be placed.
The design should be appropriate for the scale of the project. Simple designs may work better in some projects than complicated intricate designs. The proportion of the design is very important and so are the placement of design units in relation to the other like the distance between units. For an upholstery fabric, you may want an elaborate intricate design but that may not look good on a garment. So this should be taken care of at the design stage.
For sleeves you need 2 mirror image designs in exactly the same positions – this has to be planned after the pattern of the sleeve is marked but before the fabric is cut.
Appropriate placement and distribution of the design is paramount in embroidery – imagine the embroidery in your tunic placed just over your bust level on both sides – I would not want that exactly placed there, however beautiful the design is. But I have seen it done and it can look really awkward.
Hand embroidery stitches
The variety of embroidery techniques in this world is astounding. You can learn about the 60 plus hand embroidery techniques here. But most of them are based on some basic hand embroidery stitches.
The most important among them are
1. Running stitch
Learn about running stitch here ( and its 9 main variations).
2. Stem stitch
See how you can make a Stem stitch here ( and its 3 main variations).
3. Chain stitch
Check out how to do chain stitch here ( and its 20 + main variations).
4. French Knots
Learn to make cute as buttons french knots here ( and its main uses).
5. Back stitch
Learn more on working the Back stitch here ( and its 2 main variations).
6. Fly stitch
Checkout the Fly stitch tutorial here ( and its 7 main variations).
7.Bullion knot stitch
Learn about Bullion knot stitch here ( and some easy bullion stitch embroidery designs).
8. Satin stitch
Best way to do a satin stitch here ( by hand and with a machine and its main variations).
9. Feather Stitch
Learn about Feather stitch here ( and its 4 main variations).
10. Blanket stitch
See how to make a Blanket stitch here ( and its 11 main variations).
Updated on September 7, 2022 by Sarina Tariq